What is Software Testing:
Software testing is a process, to evaluate the functionality of a software application with an intent to find whether the developed software met the specified requirements or not and to identify the defects to ensure that the product is defect free in order to produce the quality product.
Let’s see standard definition, software testing types such as manual and automation testing, testing methods, testing approaches and types of black box testing.
According to ANSI/IEEE 1059 standard – A process of analyzing a software item to detect the differences between existing and required conditions (i.e., defects) and to evaluate the features of the software item.
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Software Testing Types:
Manual Testing: Manual testing is the process of testing software by hand to learn more about it, to find what is and isn’t working. This usually includes verifying all the features specified in requirements documents, but often also includes the testers trying the software with the perspective of their end user’s in mind. Manual test plans vary from fully scripted test cases, giving testers detailed steps and expected results, through to high-level guides that steer exploratory testing sessions. There are lots of sophisticated tools on the market to help with manual testing, but if you want a simple and flexible place to start, take a look at Testpad.
Automation Testing: Automation testing is the process of testing the software using an automation tool to find the defects. In this process, testers execute the test scripts and generate the test results automatically by using automation tools. Some of the famous automation testing tools for functional testing are QTP/UFT and Selenium.
- Static Testing
- Dynamic Testing
Static Testing: It is also known as Verification in Software Testing. Verification is a static method of checking documents and files. Verification is the process, to ensure that whether we are building the product right i.e., to verify the requirements which we have and to verify whether we are developing the product accordingly or not.
Activities involved here are Inspections, Reviews, Walkthroughs
Dynamic Testing: It is also known as Validation in Software Testing. Validation is a dynamic process of testing the real product. Validation is the process, whether we are building the right product i.e., to validate the product which we have developed is right or not.
Activities involved in this is Testing the software application
Read more on Static and Dynamic Testing.
There are three types of software testing approaches.
- White Box Testing
- Black Box Testing
- Grey Box Testing
White Box Testing: It is also called as Glass Box, Clear Box, Structural Testing. White Box Testing is based on applications internal code structure. In white-box testing, an internal perspective of the system, as well as programming skills, are used to design test cases. This testing is usually done at the unit level.
Black Box Testing: It is also called as Behavioral/Specification-Based/Input-Output Testing. Black Box Testing is a software testing method in which testers evaluate the functionality of the software under test without looking at the internal code structure.
Grey Box Testing: Grey box is the combination of both White Box and Black Box Testing. The tester who works on this type of testing needs to have access to design documents. This helps to create better test cases in this process.
Read more on White Box and Black Box Testing
No matter whether you are a Black box, White box or Grey box tester, you need to maintain test cases.
- Unit Testing
- Integration Testing
- System Testing
- Acceptance Testing
Unit Testing: Unit Testing is done to check whether the individual modules of the source code are working properly. i.e. testing each and every unit of the application separately by the developer in the developer’s environment. It is AKA Module Testing or Component Testing
Integration Testing: Integration Testing is the process of testing the connectivity or data transfer between a couple of unit tested modules. It is AKA I&T Testing or String Testing. It is subdivided into Top-Down Approach, Bottom-Up Approach and Sandwich Approach (Combination of Top Down and Bottom Up).
System Testing (end to end testing): It’s a black box testing. Testing the fully integrated application this is also called as end to end scenario testing. To ensure that the software works in all intended target systems. Verify thorough testing of every input in the application to check for desired outputs. Testing of the users experiences with the application.
Acceptance Testing: To obtain customer sign-off so that software can be delivered and payments received. Types of Acceptance Testing are Alpha, Beta & Gamma Testing.
Read more on Levels of Testing.
Types of Black Box Testing:
- Functionality Testing
- Non-functionality Testing
In simple words, what the system actually does is functional testing. To verify that each function of the software application behaves as specified in the requirement document. Testing all the functionalities by providing appropriate input to verify whether the actual output is matching the expected output or not. It falls within the scope of black box testing and the testers need not concern about the source code of the application.
In simple words, how well the system performs is non-functionality testing. Non-functional testing refers to various aspects of the software such as performance, load, stress, scalability, security, compatibility etc., Main focus is to improve the user experience on how fast the system responds to a request.
There are more than 100 types of testing. You can check this post where we have mentioned 100+ software testing types.
Test Artifacts are the deliverables which are given to the stakeholders of a software project. A software project which follows SDLC undergoes the different phases before delivering to the customer. In this process, there will be some deliverables in every phase. Some of the deliverables are provided before the testing phase commences and some are provided during the testing phase and rest after the testing phase is completed.
Some of the test deliverables are as follows:
- Test plan
- Traceability matrix
- Test case
- Test script
- Test suite
- Test data or Test Fixture
- Test harness
Read more: Detailed explanation – Test Artifacts
Why do we need Software Testing
Interviewers may ask you this question like “Why do we need Software Testing” or “Why is testing required” or “Why Software Testing”.
When I started in software testing I had no idea what software testing is and why it is required. I also had no clue of where to start. May be you are in the same situation as I was long back. I say, Software Testing is an art to evaluate the functionality of a software application with an intent to find whether the developed software met the specified requirements or not and to identify the defects to ensure that the product is defect free in order to produce the quality product.
What if there is no Software Testing in the Software Development process.
As per the current trend, due to constant change and development in digitization, our lives are improving in all areas. The way we work is also changed. We access our bank online, we do shopping online, we order food online and many more. We rely on software’s and systems. What if these systems turnout to be defective. We all know that one small bug shows huge impact on business in terms of financial loss and goodwill. To deliver a quality product, we need to have Software Testing in the Software Development Process.
Some of the reasons why software testing becomes very significant and integral part in the field of information technology are as follows.
- Cost effectiveness
- Customer Satisfaction
- Product Quality
1. Cost effectiveness
As a matter of fact design defects can never be completely ruled out for any complex system. It is not because developers are careless but because the complexity of a system is intractable. If the design issues go undetected, then it will become more difficult to trace back defects and rectify it. It will become more expensive to fix it. Sometimes, while fixing one bug we may introduce another one in some other module unknowingly. If the bugs can be identified in early stages of development then it costs much less to fix them. That is why it is important to find defects in the early stages of the software development life cycle. One of the benefits of testing is cost effectiveness.
It is better to start testing earlier and introduce it in every phase of software development life cycle and regular testing is needed to ensure that the application is developed as per the requirement.
2. Customer Satisfaction
In any business, the ultimate goal is to give the best customer satisfaction. Yes, customer satisfaction is very important. Software testing improves the user experience of an application and gives satisfaction to the customers. Happy customers means more revenue for a business. One of the reasons why software testing is necessary is to provide the best user experience.
This is probably the most sensitive and vulnerable part of software testing. Testing (penetration testing & security testing) helps in product security. Hackers gain unauthorized access to data. These hackers steal user information and use it for their benefit. If your product is not secured, users won’t prefer your product. Users always look for trusted products. Testing helps in removing vulnerabilities in the product.
4. Product Quality
Software Testing is an art which helps in strengthening the market reputation of a company by delivering the quality product to the client as mentioned in the requirement specification documents.
Due to these reasons software testing becomes very significant and integral part of Software Development process.
Now let’s move ahead and have a look at some of the principles of Software Testing.
Principles of Software Testing:
Testing of software consist of some principles that play a vital role while testing the project.
The Principles of Software Testing are as follows :
- Testing shows presence of defects
- Exhaustive testing is impossible
- Early testing
- Defect clustering
- Pesticide paradox
- Testing is context dependent
- Absence of error – fallacy
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