• What is Automation Testing - Advantages & Types of Tools
  • What is Selenium IDE, Selenium RC, Selenium WebDriver, Selenium Grid?
  • Selenium IDE, Firebug & Firepath Installation


  • Selenium WebDriver Architecture
  • Selenium Installation
  • Challenges and Limitations of Selenium
  • First Selenium WebDriver Script
  • Working with Firefox Browser
  • Solution - Failed To Launch Browser Using Selenium WebDriver
  • Working with Chrome Browser
  • Working with IE Browser
  • Difference Between FindElement & FindElements
  • Install Firebug, Fire path and other add on for Selenium
  • Locators in Selenium
  • Dynamic Xpath
  • Dynamic CSS
  • Handle drop-downs
  • How to work with file upload
  • Handle Alerts & Popups
  • Handle Multiple Windows
  • Mouse Hover event in Selenium
  • Right Click
  • Double Click
  • Drag and Drop
  • Capture Screenshots in Selenium
  • Parameterization
  • Synchronization
  • Implicit Wait, Explicit Wait and Fluent Wait in Selenium
  • Implicit Waits
  • Explicit WebDriver Waits
  • Fluent Wait In Selenium
  • Apache POI
  • How To Read Data From Excel File
  • How To Write Data In Excel File
  • Database Testing Using MSSQL
  • Database Testing Using MySQL
  • Database Testing Using DB2
  • Handle Ajax Call in Selenium
  • Listeners in Selenium
  • Handling JavaScript in Selenium
  • Stale Element Reference Exception in Selenium
  • Integrate Sikuli with Selenium
  • Headless Browser Testing 
  • Headless Browser Testing using HtmlUnitDriver
  • Headless Browser Testing using PhanthomJSDriver


  • TestNG Installation
  • TestNG Complete Tutorial


  • Extent Reports Introduction
  • Extent Reports Generation
  • Capturing Screenshots & Including In Extent Reports
  • Extent Reports Version 4


  • ANT Build Tool - How To Download & Install
  • Maven Build Tool - How To Download & Install
  • Creating Maven Selenium Project
  • GIT Integration with Selenium
  • Jenkins - How To Download & Install
  • Jenkins - Executing TestNG Scripts
  • Jenkins - Generating Reports After Test Execution
  • Jenkins - Executing Maven Project
  • Create build and Execute build for nightly execution
  • Send Email report based on build Status
  • Selenium Continuous Integration with Jenkins [Selenium – Maven – Git – Jenkins] – Step By Step Guide


  • Running Selenium Tests On BrowserStack
  • Kobiton - Mobile Testing Platform with Real Devices


  • Mobile Testing Platform with Real Devices


  • What is Framework & Types of Framework
  • Page Object Model Design Pattern
  • Data Driven Framework
  • How to explain Test Automation Framework or Selenium Automation Framework Architecture In Interview

  • API Testing:

  • Learn API Testing
  • Postman Tutorial (API Testing with Postman)


  • Test Automation Framework Interview Questions
  • Selenium Interview Questions
  • TestNG Interview Questions
  • Java Interview Questions
  • Python Interview Questions
  • API Testing Interview Questions


  • Automation Tester Resume
  • The Common Selenium Exceptions Cheat Sheet – Exceptions in Selenium

    During automation in Selenium, you will come across various exceptions and need to deal with them. Even if you work with other automation testing tools such as Katalon Studio, you may still face these types of exceptions (because Katalon Studio is built on top of Selenium). They are, however, more easily fixable than bugs or errors as they can throw logical termination. Let’s see exceptions in Selenium in detail.

    Selenium Exception

    This article will provide you with a complete list of various exceptions in Selenium as well as the cases in which they occur.

    But first, let’s have a look at some important information regarding the term “exception” in Selenium.

    What are Selenium Exceptions?


    An exception is known as an event, which occurs during the execution of a program, that disrupts the normal flow of the program’s instructions. An exception is also considered as a fault.

    Classification of Selenium exceptions

    Selenium exceptions are divided into two types including Checked Exceptions and Unchecked Exceptions.

    1. Checked Exceptions

    Checked Exceptions are handled during the process of writing codes. These exceptions are handled before compiling the code, therefore, such exceptions are examined at the compile time.

    2. Unchecked Exceptions

    These exceptions are thrown at runtime. Unchecked exceptions are more catastrophic than compile-time exception as it causes problems while running Automation pack in headless.

    Common Selenium Exceptions Cheat Sheet

    • StaleElementReferenceException: Stale means old, decayed, no longer fresh. Stale Element means an old element or no longer available element. Assume there is an element that is found on a web page referenced as a WebElement in WebDriver. If the DOM changes then the WebElement goes stale. If we try to interact with an element which is staled then the StaleElementReferenceException is thrown. Read more here
    • InvalidElementStateException: This Selenium exception occurs if a command cannot be finished as the element is invalid.
    • InvalidSessionIdException: Takes place when the given session ID is not included in the list of active sessions, which means the session does not exist or is inactive either.
    • InvalidSwitchToTargetException: Happens if frame or window target to be switched does not exist.
    • JavascriptException: This problem happens when executing JavaScript supplied by the user.
    • JsonException: Happens when you afford to get the session capabilities where the session is not created.
    • MoveTargetOutOfBoundsException: Takes place if the target provided to the ActionChains move() methodology is not valid. For example: out of document.
    • NoAlertPresentException: Happens when you switch to no presented alert.
    • NoSuchAttributeException: Occurs when the attribute of element could not be found.
    • NoSuchContextException: Happens in mobile device testing and is thrown by ContextAware.
    • NoSuchCookieException: This exception is thrown if there is no cookie matching with the given path name found amongst the associated cookies of the current browsing context’s active document.
    • NoSuchElementException: Happens if an element could not be found.
    • NoSuchFrameException: Takes place if frame target to be switch does not exist.
    • NoSuchWindowException: Occurs if window target to be switch does not exist.
    • NotFoundException: This exception is subclass of WebDriverException. It happens when an element on the DOM does not exist.
    • RemoteDriverServerException: This Selenium exception is thrown when server do not respond due to the problem that the capabilities described are not proper.
    • ScreenshotException: It is impossible to capture a screen.
    • ScriptTimeoutException: Thrown when executeAsyncScript takes more time than the given time limit to return the value.

    Refer TestNG Exceptions


    “Exception” is a quite common term when it comes to programming, regardless of which language you use to write codes. Therefore, we hope this article will be a quick reference for you to tackle exceptions in Selenium and Katalon Studio. From here, you can create robust and optimal codes in Selenium as well as Katalon Studio by handling these exceptions wisely.

    Selenium Exception

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